Kantian Moral Theory
Kant provides a kind of revolution in philosophy and lays the foundation for understanding the philosophy as a special kind of science. Trying to prove a new theory of knowledge, he has been critical of previous empirical theories of XVII – XVIII centuries. Treating knowledge as a kind of replica of life. Kant puts the problem in a different plane and actually sets the direction in epistemological philosophy, which examines the process of knowledge as a subject-object relationship.
The knowing subject is not a specific individual but an abstract idea, concentrates in itself a human cognitive ability and the sources of its knowledge. The totality of these abilities that exist in the mind of man, to help him organize the world by means of a priori forms of sensibility and reason. This does not mean that the person does not have individual, personal characteristics, but they do not have to play the leading role in the learning process.
The subject perceives the sensual way it impacts on some things, object or phenomenon. It generates a variety of sensations that are ordered by a priori forms of contemplation. But at this stage of knowledge is subjective. Then comes in the mind, which invests the available knowledge in the form of concepts, that is, identifying them something in common. Therefore, ultimately only the knowing subject that unites perception and understanding, creates a unity that can be considered as knowledge. Accordingly it is possible to give a description of the different forms of knowledge.
For example, mathematics is based on a priori forms of sensibility, such as space and time. In other words, the knowing subject looks at the world as if through a prism of spatial and temporal location. Space in this case – is a priori form of external sense, and the time – a priori form of inner sense. Such a priori and determines the possibility of the existence of mathematical truths, and hence of mathematics as a science. (…)